Savery and Duffy in their 2001 paper
- Understanding is in our interactions with the environment.
- Cognitive conflict or puzzlement is the stimulus for learning and determines the organisation and nature of what is learned.
- Knowledge evolves through social negotiation and through the evaluation of the viability of individual understandings
How to design for understanding:
- Anchor all learning activities to a larger task or problem
- Support the learner in developing ownership for the overall problem or task
- Design an authentic task
- Design the task and the learning environment to reflect the complexity of the environment they should be able to function in at the end of learning
- Give the learner ownership of the process used to develop a solution
- Design the learning environment to support and challenge the learner’s thinking
- Encourage testing ideas against alternative views and alternative contexts
- Provide opportunity for and support reflection on both the content learned and the learning process